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Title Biochemistry for dummies / by John T. Moore and Richard Langley.
Author Moore, John T., 1947- author.
Publication Hoboken, New Jersey : Wiley Publishing Inc., [2011]
Edition 2nd edition.
Description xvi, 340 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Call # 572 M
Series --For dummies series
--For dummies.
Note Includes index.
Contents Introduction -- About this book -- Conventions used in this book -- What you're not to read -- Foolish assumptions -- How this book is organized: -- Part 1: Setting The Stage: Basic Biochemistry Concepts -- Part 2: Meat Of Biochemistry: Proteins -- Part 3: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, And More -- Part 4: Bioenergetics And Pathways -- Part 5: Genetics: Why We Are What We Are -- Part 6: Part Of Tens -- Icons used in this book -- Where to go from here -- Part 1: Setting The Stage: Basic Biochemistry Concepts: -- Biochemistry: what you need to know and why: -- Why biochemistry? -- What is biochemistry and where does it take place? -- Types of living cells: -- Prokaryotes -- Eukaryotes -- Animal cells and how they work -- Brief look at plant cells -- Seems so basic: water chemistry and pH: -- Fundamentals of H2O -- Let's get wet! The physical properties of water -- Water's most important biochemical role: the solvent -- Hydrogen ion concentration: acids and bases -- Achieving equilibrium -- Understanding the pH scale -- Calculating pOH -- Applying the Brønsted-Lowry theory -- Buffers and pH control: -- Identifying common physiological buffers -- Calculating a buffer's pH -- Fun with carbon: organic chemistry: -- Role of carbon in the study of life -- It's all in the numbers: carbon bonds -- When forces attract: bond strengths: -- Everybody has 'em: intermolecular forces -- Water-related interactions: both the lovers and the haters -- How bond strengths affect physical properties of substances -- Getting a reaction out of a molecule: functional groups: -- Hydrocarbons -- Functional groups with oxygen and sulfur -- Functional groups containing nitrogen -- Functional groups containing phosphorus -- Reactions of functional groups -- pH and functional groups -- Same content, different structure: Isomerism: -- Cis-trans isomers -- Chiral carbons -- Part 2: Meat Of Biochemistry: Proteins: -- Amino acids: the building blocks of protein: -- General properties of amino acids: -- Amino acids are positive and negative: the zwitterion formation -- Protonated? pH and the isoelectric point -- Asymmetry: chiral amino acids -- Magic 20 amino acids: -- Nonpolar (hydrophobic) and uncharged amino acids -- Polar (hydrophilic) and uncharged amino acids -- Acidic amino acids -- Basic amino acids -- Lest we forget: rarer amino acids -- Rudiments of amino acid interactions: -- Intermolecular forces: how an amino acid interacts with other molecules -- Altering interactions by changing the pH -- Combining amino acids: how it works: -- Peptide bond and the dipeptide -- Tripeptide: adding an amino acid to a dipeptide -- Protein structure and function: -- Proteins: not just for dinner -- Primary structure: the structure level all proteins have: -- Building a protein: outlining the process -- Organizing the amino acids -- Example: the primary structure of insulin -- Secondary structure: a structure level most proteins have: -- Helix -- Pleated sheet -- Turns and the loops -- Tertiary structure: a structure level many proteins have -- Quaternary structure: a structure level some proteins have -- Dissecting a protein for study: -- Separating proteins within a cell and purifying them -- Digging into the details: uncovering a protein's amino acid sequence -- Enzyme kinetics: getting there faster: -- Enzyme classification: the best catalyst for the job: -- Up one, down one: oxidoreductases -- You don't belong here: transferases -- Water does it again: hydrolases -- Taking it apart: lyases -- Shuffling the deck: isomerases -- Putting it together: ligases -- Enzymes as catalysis: when fast is not fast enough -- All about kinetics: -- Enzyme assays: fixed time and kinetics -- Rate determination: how fast is fast? -- Measuring enzyme behavior: the Michaelis-Menten equation: -- Ideal applications -- Realistic applications -- Here we go again: Lineweaver-Burk plots -- Enzyme inhibition: slowing it down: -- Competitive inhibition -- Noncompetitive inhibition -- Graphing inhibition -- Enzyme regulation -- Part 3: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, And More: -- What we crave: carbohydrates: -- Properties of carbohydrates: -- They contain one or more chiral carbons -- They have multiple chiral centers -- Sweet topic: monosaccharides: -- Most stable monosaccharide structures: -- Pyranose and furanose forms -- Chemical properties of monosaccharides -- Derivatives of monosaccharides -- Most common monosaccharides -- Beginning of life: ribose and deoxyribose -- Sugars joining hands: oligosaccharides: -- Keeping it simple: disaccharides -- Starch and cellulose: polysaccharides -- Aldose family of sugars -- Lipids and membranes: -- Lovely lipids: an overview -- Behavior of lipids -- Fatty acids in lipids -- Fatty subject: triglycerides: -- Properties and structure of fats -- Cleaning up: breaking down a triglyceride -- No simpletons here: complex lipids: -- Phosphoglycerides -- Sphingolipids -- Sphingophospholidpids -- Membranes: the bipolar and the bilayer: -- Crossing the wall: membrane transport -- Steroids: pumping up -- Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes: mopping up --
Nucleic acids and the code of life: -- Nucleotides: the guts of DNA and RNA: -- Reservoir of genetic info: nitrogen bases -- Sweet side of life: the sugars -- Sour side of life: phosphoric acid -- Tracing the process: from nucleoside to nucleotide to nucleic acid: -- First Reaction: Nitrogen base + 5-carbon sugar = nucleoside -- Second Reaction: Phosphoric acid + nucleoside - nucleotide -- Third Reaction: Nucleotide becomes nucleic acid -- Primer on nucleic acids: -- DNA and RNA in the grand scheme of life -- Nucleic acid structure -- Vitamins: both simple and complex: -- More than one-a-day: basics of vitamins -- To B or not to B: B complex vitamins: -- Vitamin B1, (thiamine) -- Vitamin B2, (riboflavin) -- Vitamin B3 (niacin) -- Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) -- Biotin -- Folic acid -- Pantothenic acid -- Wonders of vitamin B12 -- Vitamin A -- Vitamin C -- Vitamin D -- Vitamin E -- Vitamin K -- Hormones: the body's messengers: -- Structures of some key hormones: -- Proteins -- Steroids -- Amines -- Now and later: prohormones: -- Proinsulin -- Angiotensinogen -- Fight or flight: hormone function: -- Opening the letter: hormonal action -- Models of hormonal action -- Part 4: Bioenergetics And Pathways: -- Life and energy: -- ATP: the energy pony express: -- ATP and free energy -- ATP as an energy transporter -- It's relative: molecules related to ATP: -- Nucleoside triphosphate family -- As easy as 1, 2, 3: AMP, ADP, and ATP -- Where it all comes from -- ATP: the body's monetary system: -- Metabolism 1: Glycolysis: -- Glucose: where it all starts -- Releasing the power: energy efficiency -- Going in reverse: Gluconeogenesis -- Alcoholic fermentation: we'll drink to that -- Metabolism 2: Citric acid (Krebs) cycle: -- Let's get started: synthesis of acetyl-CoA -- Three's a crowd: tricarboxylic acids -- Oxidative decarboxylation -- Production of succinate and GTP -- Oxaloacetate regeneration -- Amino acids as energy sources -- Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation: -- Electron transport system -- Oxidative phosphorylation -- Proposed mechanisms -- ATP production -- Involving the fats: b-oxidation cycle -- Not so heavenly bodies: ketone bodies -- Investing in the future: biosynthesis: -- Fatty acids -- Membrane lipids -- Amino acids -- Smelly biochemistry: nitrogen in biological systems: -- Ring in the nitrogen: purine -- Biosynthesis of purine -- How much will it cost? -- Pyrimidine synthesis: -- First Step: Carbamoyl phosphate -- Next Step: Orotate -- Last Step: Cytidine -- Back to the beginning: catabolism: -- Nucleotide catabolism -- Amino acid catabolism -- Heme catabolism -- Process of elimination: the urea cycle -- Amino acids once again -- Metabolic disorders: -- Gout -- Lesch-Nyhan syndrome -- Albinism -- Alkaptonuria -- Phenylketonuria -- Part 5: Genetics: Why We Are What We Are: -- Photocopying DNA: -- Let's do it again: replication: -- DNA polymerases -- Current model of DNA replication -- Mechanism of DNA repair -- Mutation: the good, the bad, and the ugly -- Restriction enzymes -- Mendel rolling over: recombinant DNA -- Patterns: determining DNA sequences: -- Getting charged up about gel electrophoresis -- Determining the base sequence -- Butler did it: forensic applications -- Genetic diseases and other DNA testing applications: -- Sickle cell anemia -- Hemochromatosis -- Cystic fibrosis -- Hemophilia -- Tay-sachs -- Transcribe this! RNA transcription: -- Types of RNA -- RNA polymerase requirements -- Making RNA: the basics: -- Promoting transcription of RNA -- Prokaryotic cells -- Eukaryotic cells -- Not a secret any longer: the genetic code: -- Codons -- Alpha and omega -- Models of gene regulation: -- Jacob-Monod (operon) model -- Regulation of eukaryotic genes -- Translation: protein synthesis: -- Hopefully not lost in translation: -- Why translation is necessary -- Home, home in the ribosome -- Translation team: -- Team captain: rRNA -- Here's the snap: mRNA -- Carrying the ball: tRNA -- Charging up the middle: amino acid activation -- Hooking up: protein synthesis: -- Activation -- Initiation -- Elongation -- Termination -- Wobble hypothesis -- Variation in eukaryotic cells: -- Ribosomes -- Initiator tRNA -- Initiation -- Elongation and termination -- Part 6: Part Of Tens: -- Ten great applications of biochemistry: -- Ames test -- Pregnancy testing -- HIV testing -- Breast cancer testing -- Prenatal genetic testing -- PKU screening -- Genetically modified foods -- Genetic engineering -- Cloning -- Gene-replacement therapy -- Ten biochemistry careers: -- Research assistant -- Plant breeder -- Quality control analyst -- Clinical research associate -- Technical writer -- Biochemical development engineer -- Market research analyst -- Patent attorney -- Pharmaceutical sales -- Biostatistician -- Index.
Summary Overview: Grasp biochemistry basics, apply the science, and ace your exams. Are you baffled by biochemistry? If so here's the good news - you don't have to stay that way! Biochemistry For Dummies shows you how to get a handle on biochemistry, apply the science, raise your grades, and prepare yourself to ace any standardized test. This friendly, unintimidating guide presents an overview of the material covered in a typical college-level biochemistry course and makes the subject easy to understand and accessible to everyone. From cell ultrastructure and carbohydrates to amino acids, proteins, and supramolecular structure, you'll identify biochemical structures and reactions, and send your grades soaring. Newest biology, biochemistry, chemistry, and scientific discoveries. Updated examples and explanations. Incorporates the most current teaching techniques - From water biochemistry to protein synthesis, Biochemistry For Dummies gives you the vital information, clear explanations, and important insights you need to increase your understanding and improve your performance on any biochemistry test.
Subject Biochemistry.
Addl. Author Langley, Richard, author.
ISBN 1118021746 (pbk.) :
9781118021743 (pbk.) :

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